Factor Analysis

### Focus Paper

- Fabrigar, L.R., Wegener, D.T., MacCallum, R. C., & Strahan, E.J. (1999). Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research.
*Psychological Methods, 4*, 272-299. - Schmitt, T.A. (2011). Current methodological considerations in exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis.
*Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 29*, 304-321.

### Wikipedia Links

### Suggested further reading

*Factors or components.*

- Multivariate Behavioral Research, 1990, 25,1. Target article and a large number of commentaries from top methodologists (Bentler, Mulaik, Gorsuch, Steiger, Schonemann, McArdle, Widaman etc.)
- Widaman, K.F. (1993). Common factor analysis versus principal component analysis: Differential bias in representing model parameters?
*Multivariate Behavioural Research*,**28**, 263-311. - Borsboom, D., Mellenbergh, G.J., & van Heerden, J. (2003). The theoretical status of latent variables.
*Psychological Review*,**110**, 203-219.

*Sample Size*

- MacCallum, R.C., Widaman, K.F., Zhang, S. & Hong, S. (1999). Sample size in factor analysis.
*Psychological Methods*,**4**, 84-99. - Preacher, K.J. & MacCallum, R.C. (2002). Exploratory factor analysis in behavior genetics research: Factor recovery with small sample sizes.
*Behavior Genetics*,**32**, 153-161. - de Winter, J.C.F. & Dodou, D. (2012). Factor recovery by principal axis factoring and maximum likelihood factor analysis as a function of factor pattern and sample size.
*Journal of Applied Statistics*,**39**, 695-710. - Mundfrom, D.J., Shaw, D.G., & Ke, T.L. (2005). Minimum Sample Size Recommendations for Conducting Factor Analyses.
*International Journal of Testing*,**5**, 159-168.

*Estimation.*

*Rotations.*

- Browne, M.W. (2001). An overview of analytic rotation in exploratory factor analysis.
*Multivariate Behavioral Research, 36*, 111-150. - Sass, D.A., & Schmitt, T.A. (2010). A comparative investigation of rotation criteria within exploratory factor analysis.
*Multivariate Behavioral Research*,**45**, 1-33.

*Number of factors/components to select.*

- Crawford, A.V., Green, S.B., Levy, R., Lo, W-J., Scott, L., Svetina, S., & Thompson, M.S. (2010). Evaluation of parallel analysis methods for determining the number of factors.
*Educational and Psychological Measurement*,**70**, 885-901. - Lorenzo-Seva, U., Timmerman, M.E., & Kiers, H.A.L. (2011). The Hull method for selecting the number of common factors.
*Multivariate Behavioral Research*,**46**, 340-364. - Timmerman, M. E., & Lorenzo-Seva, U. (2011). Dimensionality Assessment of Polytomous Items with Parallel Analysis.
*Psychological Methods*,**16**, 209-220. doi:10.1037/a0023353.

*Applied use of factor analysis*

- Ford, J.K., MacCallum, R.C., Tait, M. (2006). The application of exploratory factor analysis in applied psychology: A critical review and analysis.
*Personnel Psychology*,**39**, 291-314. - Henson, R.K. & Roberts, J.K. (2006). Use of exploratory factor analysis in published research; Common errors and some comment on improved practice.
*Educational and Psychological Measurement*,**66**, 393-416.

*Factor Scores*

- Grice, J. W. (2001). Computing and evaluating factor scores.
*Psychol Methods*,**6**. 430-450. doi]. PMID.

page revision: 2, last edited: 10 Oct 2012 15:29